ENDNOTES

+ Copyright 1992-1994 by David Loundy All Rights Reserved

* The author has a J.D. from the University of Iowa Law School and has a B.A. in Telecommunications from Purdue University. He has been active in the use and administration of computer bulletin board systems for a number of years. The author would like to thank Christina King Loundy, Professor Nicholas Johnson, Bellanca Fletcher, and Vallerie Salerno for their assistance during the writing of this paper. This paper is an updated and revised version of the paper "E-Law: Legal Issues Affecting Computer Information Systems and System Operator Liability" which appeared in Volume 3, Number 1, of the Albany Law Journal of Science and Technology.

1. Mitchell Kapor & John P. Barlow, *Across the Electronic Frontier*, July 10, 1990, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
2. For example, in 1987 there were approximately 6,000 bulletin board systems in the United States. In 1992 this amount was up to approximately 45,000 in the U.S. alone. See Jack Rickard, *Home-Grown BB$*, WIRED, 1.4, Sept./Oct., 1993.
3. Each of the legal issues could be discussed in papers at least this large, so only the most important aspects will be covered.
4. To run a computer bulletin board system, three things are needed beginning with a computer. Bulletin board systems can be run on virtually any size computer, from a small personal computer costing a few hundred dollars, to a large mainframe computer affordable only to large corporations and universities. In addition to the computer, bulletin board software is also needed, which is obtainable either commercially or free. Finally, you need a way for people (usually called "users" in computer jargon) to access your bulletin board. This is accomplished via a modem or by connection to a computer network.
5. A host computer is the computer on which the bulletin board software runs and which stores the messages left by users of the BBS.
6. Connection via a telephone line may be accomplished by a modem, a device which converts computer data to an audio signal which can then be transferred over a standard telephone wire where it is received by another computer, also equipped with a modem, which then converts the signal back into a form comprehensible to the receiving computer. More and more often computers may be found connected together in a network, such as computers in a lab at a university, or office computers which share resources.
7. These "areas" may be referred to by a variety of names, such as forums, special interest groups (SIGs), conferences, rooms, newsgroups, etc.
8. Because of the way a BBS is accessed, some easily have national or international reach. The international aspects of computer information systems are largely beyond the scope of this paper, though with the increasingly international reach of telecommunications it is crucial to keep in mind that some computer systems may be used by people in other countries as easily as they may be used by people in their home countries. This international reach of telecommunications has a potentially profound impact on United States law and System Operator liability. Bulletin board systems originally started on a small scale, used by local computer "hackers" to exchange information among themselves. The term "hacker" is used in a number of different ways. It was originally used to refer to someone who uses his or her computer knowledge to break into other computer systems. See Eric C. Jensen, *An Electronic Soapbox: Computer Bulletin Boards and the First Amendment*, 39 FED. COM. L.J. 217 n.50 (1987). With the rise of national and international computer networks, BBSs are becoming more accessible to the general populace not just for local users, but also for users all over the world. Some countries already provide their citizens easy access to state-endorsed computer information systems. The world leader has been Franc e, which has provided its "Minitel" service since 1982. Wallys W. Conhaim, *Maturing French Videotext becomes Key International Business Tool*,
9 INFO. TODAY 28 (1992). Minitel has grown to a system of about six million terminals as of the end of 1991, and it includes access to over 16,000 information services. Carol Wilson, *The Myths and Magic of Minitel; France's Minitel Videotex Service*, TELEPHONY, Dec. 2, 1991, at 52, 52. 9. Robert W. Kastenmeier et al., *Communications Privacy: A Legislative Perspective*, 1989 WIS. L. REV. 715, 727.
10. Id.
11. Id.
12. Id.
13. Downloading entails transferring files from the computer on which the BBS runs to the user's computer, and uploading is the reverse.
14. This operates as a way to get information more directly from other people and even to meet new friends. In fact, for some people a BBS is a major social outlet, allowing communication on equal terms without first impressions being formed by physical appearances. Some people have even decided to get married to other users, solely based on the messages they have exchanged. John Johnston, *Looking for Log-On Love*, Gannett News Service, Mar. 25, 1992, available in LEXIS, Nexis Library, Current file. Others are not looking for information or casual conversation, but rather for "net sex." Chat features can be used much like telephone 900 number dial-a-porn services. Before cracking down on them, the French Minitel system determined that sex oriented messages constituted nearly 20 percent of the usage of its conferencing system. John Markoff, *The Nation; The Latest Technology Fuels the Oldest of Drives*, N.Y. TIMES, Mar. 22, 1992, s. 4, at 5.
15. See generally Richard N. Neustadt, *Symposium: Legal Issues in Electronic Publishing: 1. Background -- The Technology*, 36 FED. COM L.J. 149 (1984).
16. Id.
17. Id.
18. Id.
19. Id.
20. Id.
21. The final "t" is often left off because on many computers, filenames are limited to eight characters. See *A Glossary of Computer Technology Terms*, AM. BANKER, Oct. 25, 1989, at 10 [hereinafter *Glossary*].
22. *Neustadt*, supra note 14, at 149.
23. Examples include WESTLAW, LEXIS, DIALOG, ERIC, and the local library's card catalog.
24. Some of these services are quite large, and may contain the whole text of books and periodicals, though some may contain only citations requiring the user to look elsewhere to find the actual material desired. These services differ significantly in their degree of complexity-for example, in the types of search terms they will allow.
25. See MACUSER, June 1991, at 134.
26. See *Glossary*, supra note 21.
27. On large networks, such as the Internet, there are even databases called "archies," which index file servers available all over the network. They have small descriptions of available software, and give a listing of what machines on the network have the file available. Alan Emtage, *What Is 'Archie'*, EFFECTOR ONLINE, Oct. 18, 1991, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation)(Vol. 1, No. 12).
28. DAM C. ENGST, INTERNET STARTER KIT 104 (1993)
29. Id. at 100-101.
30. Id. at 107.
31. Id.
32. CHRISTOPHER CONDON & YALE COMPUTER CENTER, BITNET USERHELP, 1988. Available over Bitnet by sending the command "get bitnet userhelp" to NETSERV@BITNIC. Id.
33. Some of the major examples of networks are Tymnet, Sprintnet, and specifically for WESTLAW and LEXIS users there is Westnet and Meadnet.
34. An example of such interactive communication is the UNIX "Talk" command which allows a person to talk instantaneously with a remote user. Both users can type simultaneously; one user's text appears on the top of his or her computer screen while the other user's text appears on the bottom.
35. Some examples of these more full-service type networks include the Internet, Bitnet, and ARPANET.
36. One such special use is the electronic forum, basically an automated mailing list. A message is sent to a "LISTSERVER" where it is then automatically distributed to other people on its electronic mailing list. A LISTSERVER is an automated computer m ailing program running out of a computer account. Mail is sent to the account; the LISTSERVER then redistributes the message. The people on the list then receive the message as E-mail. They can respond by sending a reply back to the LISTSERVER which then distributes that message to its list, which includes the first message sender. This works, in effect, like a group of people standing around discussing a topic, though some people are left behind in the discussion if they do not log on to read their m ail regularly. CONDON & YALE COMPUTER CENTER, supra, note 27. A similar type of electronic publication is the electronic digest; a message is sent to the LISTSERVER, but, instead of being automatically sent out, it is held. A "moderator" then sorts through and edits the material for distribution to the people on the digest's mailing list. Id. The most formal type of electronic publishing is the Electronic magazine or journal, often called the E-journal. These are "real" magazines, just like print magazines, but they are distributed electronically, rather than in hard copy. Id.
37. Dawn Stover, *Viruses, Worms, Trojans, and Bombs; Computer "Infections"*, POPULAR SCI., Sept. 1989, at 59.
38. Id. Some people consider them such a threat that Lloyd's of London even offers an insurance policy that specifically covers viruses. Id.
39. U.S. CONST. amend. IV.
40. M.I.T. Professor Ithiel de Sola Pool, quoted in John Markoff, *Some Computer Conversation Is Changing Human Contact*, N.Y. TIMES, May 13, 1990, s. 1, at 1.
41. See generally *'Fred The Computer'; Electronic Newspaper Services Seen as 'Ad-Ons'*, COMM. DAILY, Apr. 10, 1990, at 4.
42. Electric Word*, WIRED, 2.07, July, 1994, at 30.
43. Second Computer Inquiry 61 F.C.C.2d 103 (1976) (Amendment of Section 64.702 of the Commission's Rules and Regulations, Notice of Inquiry and Proposed Rulemaking). See also Second Computer Inquiry, 77 F.C.C.2d 384, 420-21 (1980) (Final Decision) (The talks directly discuss BBSs as enhanced services.).
44. See Gregory G. Sarno, Annotation, *Libel and Slander: Defamation by Photograph*, 52 A.L.R. 4th 488, 495 (1987).
45. RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS s. 568 cmt. b (1989).
46. Id.
47. See, e.g., Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. v. Greenmoss Builders, Inc. 472 U.S. 749 (1985).
48. RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS s. 568(2).
49. Id. s. 568(1).
50. See Tidmore v. Mills, 32 So. 2d 769, 774 (Ala. Ct. App.), cert. denied, 32 So. 2d 782 (Ala. 1947).
51. RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS s. 558 (1989).
52. Id. s. 559.
53. Id. s. 559 cmt. d.
54. Id.
55. Id. s. 569 cmt. e.
56. See, e.g., Ben-Oliel v. Press Publishing Co., 167 N.E. 432 (N.Y. 1929). This case involved a newspaper article on Palestinian art and custom which was mistakenly credited to the plaintiff, an expert in the field. The article contained a number of inaccuracies that, while still impressive to the lay reader, would embarrass the plaintiff among other experts.
57. Rindos v. Hardwick, Supreme Court of Western Australia, unreported, March 31, 1994, 1994 /1993, SCLN #940164 .
58. Id.
59. Id.
60. Id.
61. Lance Rose, *When Modems Squawk, Wall Street Listens*, WIRED, 1.3, July/August, 1993, at 30.
62. Joshua Quittner, *Bulletin Board Libel? Company Says Prodigy User Posted Lies*, NEWSDAY, March 30, 1993 at 37.
63. New York Times v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964).
64. Id. at 256.
65. Id.
66. Id. at 270.
67. Id. at 279.
68. Id.
69. Id.
70. Id.
71. Id.
72. Id. at 279-80.
73. Id.
74. Curtis Publishing Co. v. Butts, 388 U.S. 130 (1967), aff'g 351 F.2d 702 (5th Cir. 1965), reh'g denied, 389 U.S. 889 (1967).
75. Associated Press v. Walker, 388 U.S. 130 (1967), rev'g 393 S.W.2d 671 (Tex. Civ. App. 1965), reh'g denied, 389 U.S. 889 (1967).
76. See 388 U.S. at 164 (Warren, C.J., concurring).
77. Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323, 342 (1974). See infra text accompanying notes 75-87.
78. 418 U.S. at 343.
79. Id. at 323.
80. Id.
81. Id. at 326.
82. Id.
83. See Rosenbloom v. Metromedia, Inc., 403 U.S. 29 (1971).
84. Id. at 31-32.
85. 418 U.S. at 345.
86. Id. at 346.
87. Id. at 340.
88. Id.
89. Id. at 341.
90. Id. at 344.
91. Id. at 347.
92. 472 U.S. at 749 (involving a suit for defamation because of a false credit report).
93. Id.; cf. Thompson v. San Antonio Retail Merchants Ass'n, 682 F.2d. 509 (5th Cir. 1982).
94. 472 U.S. at 761-62.
95. Id.
96. See, Edwards v. National Audubon Society, Inc., 556 F.2d 113 (2d. Cir. 1977). See also Time, Inc. v. Pape, 401 U.S. 279, reh'g denied, 401 U.S. 1015 (1971) (Newspaper's coverage of a government report which, due to inaccuracies, defamed a public official, could not result in liability unless the newspaper published the story with actual malice); Beary v. West Publishing Co., 763 F.2d 66 (2d Cir. 1985) (holding a publisher that exactly reprinted a court opinion was absolutely privileged for any defamatory comments in the court opinion).
97. 763 F.2d at 68.
98. 556 F.2d at 119.
99. See, e.g., Greenbelt Coop. Publishing Ass'n v. Bresler, 398 U.S. 6 (1970).
100. Cianci v. New York Times Publishing Co., 636 F.2d 54, 64 (1980).
101. Id.
102. Id. (referring to Greenbelt Coop. Letter Carriers v. Austin, 418 U.S. 264 (1974); Gertz v. Robert Welsh 418 U.S. 323 (1974); Buckley v. Littell, 539 F2d 882, cert. denied, 429 U.S. 1062 (1977); Rinaldi v. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 366 N.E.2d 12 99 (N.Y.), cert. denied, 434 U.S. 969 (1977)) (The court in Cianci held the privilege inapplicable to a situation in which the plaintiff was clearly accused of committing a criminal act.).
103. U.S. CONST. amend. I.
104. *Legal Overview: The Electronic Frontier and the Bill of Rights*, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
105. Id.
106. Hereinafter F.C.C.
107. Matt Kramer, *Wireless Communication Net: Dream Come True; Wireless Distributed Area Networks The Wide View*, P.C. WEEK, Mar. 5, 1990, at 51, 51.
108. Harvey Silverglate, *Legal Overview, The Electronic Frontier and the Bill of Rights*,available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
109. Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969).
110. Id. at 447.
111. Chaplinsky v. State of New Hampshire, 315 U.S. 568, 572 (1942).
112. Id.
113. Id. at 573.
114. Compare Id. with 395 U.S. at 446.
115. 18 U.S.C. s.871 et seq.
116. 18 U.S.C. s.875 (b).
117. *In Jail for E-Mail*, WIRED, 2.10, October, 1994, at 33.
118. Id.
119. 18 U.S.C. s.871.
120. New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 747 (1982).
121. Id. at 756-57 (citing Globe Newspaper Co. v. Superior Court, 457 U.S. 596, 607 (1982)).
122. Id. at 759 (citing Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15, reh'g denied, 414 U.S. 881 (1973)).
123. Id. at 761.
124. Id. at 762.
125. Id. at 763.
126. Id. at 759.
127. See 18 U.S.C. s. 2252 (1978).
128. Id. s. 2252(a)(1).
129. U.S. Customs Closes Network Transmitting Pornography*, GLOBAL TELECOM REPORT, March 22, 1993.
130. See Lois F. Lunin, *An Overview of Electronic Image Information*, OPTICAL INFO. SYSS., May 1990.
131. Id.
132. Id.
133. See 18 U.S.C. s. 2255(a) (1986).
134. s. 2252(a)(4)(B).
135. Id. s. 2252(b).
136. s.2252(a)(4)(B).
137. See, Jim Doyle, *FBI Probing Child Porn On Computers: Fremont Man Complains of Illicit Mail*, SAN FRANCISCO CHRON., Dec. 5, 1991 at A23. See also, Robert F. Howe, *Va. Man Pleads Guilty in Child Sex Film Plot; Computer Ads Led to Youth Volunteer's Arrest*, WASH. POST., Nov. 30, 1989, at C1.; Robert L. Jackson, *Child Molesters Use Electronic Networks; Computer-Crime Sleuths Go Undercover*, L.A. TIMES, Oct. 1, 1989, at 20.
138. See United States v. Lambey, 949 F.2d 133 (1991), United States v. DePew, 751 F. Supp. 1195 (E.D. Va. 1990).
139. Note, *Addressing the New Hazards of the High Technology Workplace*, 104 HARV. L. REV. 1898, 1913 (1991).
140. Id. at 1898.
141. See 949 F.2d 133; Jensen, supra note 8, at 222.
142. See 949 F.2d 133; Note, supra note 132, at 1898; Jensen, supra note 8, at 222.
143. See 949 F.2d 133; Note, supra note 132, at 1898; Jensen supra note 8, at 222.
144. Note, supra note 132, at 1899; Jensen, supra note 8, at 222.
145. See United States v. Morris, 928 F.2d 505 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 112 S. Ct. 72 (1991).
146. Jensen, supra note 8, at 222.
147. Id. Purists argue that the term "cracking" be used where a destructive intent is present, while "hacking" is used in the exploratory sense. For the sake of convenience only, the term "hacking" will be used here to refer to both types of activities.
148. Dodd S. Griffith, *The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986: A Measured Response to a Growing Problem*, 43 VAND. L. REV. 453, 455 (1990).
149. Id. at 460.
150. Id.
151. Id.
152. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986, 18 U.S.C. s. 1030 (1988).
153. Griffith, supra note 141, at 474.
154. Id.
155. 18 U.S.C. s. 1030.
156. 18 U.S.C. s. 1029.
157. Id.
158. United States v. Fernandez, 1993 WL 88197 (S.D.N.Y, 1993).
159. United States v. Morris, 928 F.2d 504 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 112 S. Ct. 72 (1991).
160. Id.; Nicholas Martin, *Revenge of the Nerds; The Real Problem with Computer Viruses Isn't Genius Programmers, It's Careless Ones*, PSYCHOL. TODAY, Jan. 1989, at 21.
161. 928 F.2d. at 506.
162. Robin Nelson, *Viruses, Pests, and Politics: State of the Art*, 20 COMPUTER & COMM. DECISIONS, Dec. 1989, at 40, 40.
163. Id.
164. 928 F.2d. at 504.
165. Id. at 506.
166. 8 U.S.C. s. 1030(a)(5)(A).
167. 928 F.2d at 506-07.
168. 328 F2d. 504 (1991).
169. 112 S. Ct. at 72.
170. Thomas A. Guidoboni, *What's Wrong with the Computer Crime Statute?; Defense and Prosecution Agree the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act is Flawed but Differ on How to Fix It*, COMPUTERWORLD, Feb. 17, 1992, at 33, 33.
171. Id.
172. Mike Godwin, *Editorial: Amendments Would Undue Damage of Morris Decision*, EFFECTOR ONLINE, Oct. 18, 1991, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
173. David F. Geneson, *Recent Developments in the Investigation and Prosecution of Computer Crime*, 301 PLI/Pat 45, at 2. The difficulty arises from the fact that Morris had authorized access to some computers but not others, presenting the question whet her Morris' actions amounted to unauthorized access or whether his actions exceeded authorized access. 928 F.2d at 510.
174. Computer Abuse Amendments of 1994, Pub. L. No. 103-322, s.290001, (September 13, 1994).
175. Id, s.290001 (b).
176. Id.
177. Id.
178. Id.
179. Id.
180. Cindy Skrzycki, *Thieves Tap Phone Access Codes to Ring Up Illegal Calls*, WASH. POST, Sept. 2, 1991, s. 1 at A1.
181. Id.
182. Id.
183. Id.
184. Fraud by Wire, Radio, or Television, 18 U.S.C. s. 1343 (1992).
185. Id.
186. See, e.g., Brandon v. United States, 382 F.2d 607 (10th Cir. 1967).
187. 18 U.S.C. s. 1346.
188. Id.
189. See, e.g., State v. Northwest Passage, Inc., 585 P.2d 794 (Wash. 1978) (en banc).
190. See, e.g., Daniel J. Kluth, *The Computer Virus Threat: A Survey of Current Criminal Statutes*, 13 HAMLINE L. REV. 297 (1990).
191. Id.
192. David R. Johnson et al., *Computer Viruses: Legal and Policy Issues Facing Colleges and Universities*. 54 EDUC. L. REP. (West) 761 (Sept. 14, 1989).
193. Id. at 762.
194. Id.
195. Eric Allman, *Worming My Way; November 1988 Internet Worm*, UNIX REV., January 1989, at 74.
196. Kluth, supra note 183, at 298.
197. Id. at note 14.
198. See Stover, supra note 32.
199. Id.
200. Kluth, supra note 183, at 298.
201. See Stover, supra note 32.
202. *Electronic Mail Software Provider Reports Virus Contamination*, UPI, Feb. 3, 1992, available in LEXIS, Nexis Library, UPI File.
203. See Kluth, supra note 183.
204. Id.
205. 18 U.S.C. s. 1030 (1984).
206. Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, 18 U.S.C. s.2510 (1984).
207. Johnson et al., supra note 178, at 764. See Anne W. Branscomb, *Rogue Computer Programs and Computer Rogues: Tailoring the Punishment to Fit the Crime*, 16 RUTGERS COMPUTER TECH. L.J. 1, 30-31, 61 (1990).
208. Branscomb, supra note 200, at 32.
209. Id.
210. Id. at 33.
211. Id.
212. Id. at 34.
213. Id.
214. Id. at 35.
215. Id.
216. Id.
217. Id. at 36.
218. Id. at 37.
219. See Johnson et al., supra, note 185, at 764, 766.
220. Id. at 766.
221. Id.
222. W. PAGE KEETON ET AL., PROSSER AND KEETON ON THE LAW OF TORTS s.30(1), at 164 (5th ed. 1984).
223. Id. s. 30(2), at 164.
224. Id. s. 31, at 169.
225. Id. s. 29, at 162.
226. Cheryl S. Massingale & A. Faye Borthick, *Risk Allocation for Computer System Security Breaches: Potential Liability for Providers of Computer Services*, 12 W. NEW ENG. L. REV. 167, 187 (1990).
227. Id. at 188-89.
228. Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967).
229. Id. at 348.
230. Id. at 351.
231. Id.
232. Id.
233. See, e.g., Oliver v. U.S. 466 U.S. 170 (1984).
234. See 389 U.S. at 347; See also California v. Ciraolo 476 U.S. 207, reh'g denied, 478 U.S. 1014 (1986).
235. See Ruel Hernandez, *Computer Electronic Mail and Privacy*, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
236. 18 U.S.C. s. 2510 (1968).
237. See Hernandez, supra note 228.
238. United States v. Seidlitz, 589 F.2d 152 (4th Cir. 1978), cert. denied, 441 U.S. 922 (1979).
239. Id. at 157.
240. See Hernandez, supra note 228.
241. Robert W. Kastenmeier et al., supra note 9, at 720 (citations omitted).
242. Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, 18 U.S.C. s.2510 (1968).
243. Id. s. 2510(12).
244. 18 U.S.C. s. 2511.
245. Id. s. 2511(1)(a).
246. Id. s. 2511(4).
247. Id. s. 2511(1)(c).
248. Id. s. 2511(2)(a)(i).
249. Id.
250. Id. s. 2510(14).
251. Id. s. 2511(3)(b)(ii).
252. Id. s. 2511(3)(b)(iii).
253. Id. s. 2511(3)(b)(iv).
254. Id. s. 2511(3)(b)(iv).
255. Id. s. 2511(3)(b)(i).
256. Id. s. 2511.
257. Encryption is in essence a coding of the data so it cannot be understood by anyone without the equipment or knowledge necessary to decode the transmission.
258. 18 U.S.C. s. 2518 (1968).
259. Id. s. 2511(2)(h)(i). A pen register is a device which records the telephone numbers called *from* a specific telephone; a trap and trace device records the phone originating calls *to* a specific telephone.
260. Id. s. 2701.
261 .Id. s. 2701(a).
262. Id.!s. 2701(b).
263. Id. s. 2702.
264. See id. s. 2703.
265. Id. s. 2703(a)
266. Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Serv., 816 F. Supp. 432 (W.D. TEX. 1993).
267. Id. at 434.
268.!Id. at 443.
269. Id. at 442-43.
270. Id.; 18 U.S.C. s. 2510.
271. 816 F. Supp. at 442-43.
272. 816 F. Supp. at 441-42; 18 U.S.C. s. 2701.
273. See the file, *sjg_appeal.brief*, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
274. Id.
275. See 18 U.S.C. s. 2511 (1968).
276. Armstrong v. Executive Office of the President, 810 F. Supp 335 (D.C. Cir. 1993).
277. Id. at 348.
278. Federal Records Act, 44 U.S.C. s.s. 2101-2118, 2901-2910, 3101-3107, 3301-3324.
279. Id. s. 3301.
280. 810 F. Supp. at 342, 343.
281. Id. at 341.
282. 44 U.S.C. s. 2201.
283. Section 2201(2) of the Act defines a Presidential record as: documentary materials ... created or received by the President, his immediate staff, or a unit or individual in the Executive Office of the President whose function is to advise and assist the President, in the course of conducting activities which relate to or have an affect upon the carrying out of the constitutional, statutory, or other official or ceremonial duties of the President.
284. Armstrong v. Bush, 924 F.2d. 282, 290 (D.C. Cir. 1991).
285. Privacy Protection Act of 1980, 42 U.S.C. s. 2000aa (1980).
286. Id. s. 2000aa(a).
287. Zurcher v. Stanford Daily, 436 U.S. 547 (1978).
288. Id. at 549.
289. 42 U.S.C. s.2000aa(a)(1).
290. Id. s.2000aa (a)(2).
291. For example., journalists reporting from a war zone can use a laptop computer and a satellite telephone to transmit an article to an E-mail service, where the article can then be sent to the publisher. See, *Electric Word*, WIRED, 1.6, Dec., 1993 a t 27.
292. Mitchell Kaypor, *Civil Liberties in Cyberspace; Computers, Networks and Public Policy*, SCI. AM., Sept. 1991, 158, 158.
293. Id.
294. Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Serv., 816 F. Supp. 432, 439 (W.D. Tex. 1993).
295. Id. at 439-40.
296. Id. at 438.
297. Id.
298. *Legal Case Summary*, May 10, 1990, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
299. Id.
300. 816 F. Supp. at 436.
301. United States v. Riggs, 743 F. Supp. 556 (N.D. Ill. 1990).
302. *Special Issue: Search Affidavit for Steve Jackson Games*, COMPUTER UNDERGROUND DIG., Nov. 13, 1990, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
303. 816 F. Supp. at 436.
304. 42 U.S.C. s. 2000aa.
305. 816 F. Supp. at 437.
306. Id.
307. Id.
308. Id. at 439-40.
309. Id. at 441.
310. Id.
311. See, e.g., F.C.C. v. Pacifica Foundation, 438 U.S. 726, reh'g denied, 439 U.S. 883 (1978).
312. The term "obscene material" is used synonymously with "pornographic material." See Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15, n.2, reh'g denied, 414 U.S. 881 (1973).
313. Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957).
314. Id. at 487.
315. 413 U.S. at 15.
316. Id.
317. Id. at 24.
318. Pope v. Illinois, 481 U.S. 497, 500 (1987) (citing Smith v. United States, 431 U.S. 291 (1977)).
319. Hamling v. United States, 418 U.S. 87 (1974).
320. See, e.g., 413 U.S. 15; Kois v. Wisconsin, 408 U.S. 2219 (1972).
321. Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S. 557 (1969).
322. Id. at 565.
323. Id.
324. Id.
325. Jensen, supra note 8.
326. Note that an exception would be made for child pornography, See discussion supra part III.D.
327. Jensen, supra note 8.
328. U.S. v. Orito, 413 U.S. 139 (1973).
329. Id. at 143.
330. See Cubby, Inc. v. CompuServe, Inc., 776 F. Supp. 135 (S.D.N.Y. 1991).
331. 394 U.S. at 565.
332. Paris Adult Theatre I v. Slaton, 413 U.S. 49, 68-69, reh'g denied, 414 U.S. 881 (1973).
333. 438 U.S. at 726.
334. Id. at 732.
335. Id. at 726-27.
336. U.S. CONST. art. I, s. 8, cl. 8.
337. Copyright Act of 1947, 17 U.S.C. s. 101 (1947).
338. Id. s. 102(a).
339. Id. s. 101.
340. Id. s. 102(a) Other categories include musical works, dramatic works, pantomimes and choreographic works, and architectural works. Id.
341. See s. 101 (Historical and Statutory Notes).
342. Id.
343. Id.
344. Id.
345. Data which is not stored on a disk is kept in a computer's "RAM" (Random Access Memory). RAM is a volatile information store where the computer keeps the information it is actively processing. When the computer is turned off, all of this data is lost ; thus, anything stored in RAM is missing the required element of "fixation."
346. Id. s. 102(b).
347. See Charles Von Simon, *Page Turns in Copyright Law with Adobe Typeface Ruling*, COMPUTERWORLD, Feb. 5, 1990, at 120.
348. Id.
349. See *Adobe Successfully Registers Copyright Claim for Font Program*, COMPUTER LAWYER, Feb. 1990, at 26.
350. Von Simon, supra note 340.
351. Copyright Act of 1947, 17 U.S.C. s. 106 (1947).
352. Id.
353. See Screen Gems-Columbia Music, Inc. v. Mark-Fi Records, Inc., 256 F. Supp. 399 (S.D.N.Y. 1966).
354. De Acosta v. Brown, 146 F.2d 408 (2d Cir. 1944).
355. Bright Tunes Music Corp. v. Harrisongs Music, Ltd., 420 F. Supp. 177 (S.D.N.Y. 1976).
356. 17 U.S.C. s. 103.
357. Id.
358. Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Tel. Serv. Co., Inc., 111 S.Ct. 1282 (1991).
359. 17 U.S.C. s. 106.
360. 17 U.S.C. s. 101.
361. Some of these issues will need to be addressed in the near future thanks to a portion of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. s.5512) which mandates the creation of a national research and education computing network (NREN). This section also requires that the network "have accounting mechanisms which allow users or groups of users to be charged for their usage of copyrighted materials available over the Network and, where appropriate and technically feasible, for their usage of the Network." 15 U.S.C. s. 5512 (c) (6).
362. 17 U.S.C. s.s. 106(1), (3).
363. 17 U.S.C. s. 101.
364. Id.
365. 17 U.S.C. s. 106.
366. Unfortunately, one court has made exactly this mistake. See Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Frena, 839 F. Supp. 1552, 1556 (M.D. Fla. 1993).
367. 17 U.S.C. s. 107.
368. 17 U.S.C. s. 108.
369. Bruce J. McGiverin, Note, *Digital Sound Sampling, Copyright and Publicity: Protecting Against the Electronic Appropriation of Sounds*, 87 COLUM. L. REV. 1723, 1736 (1987) (citations omitted).
370. 17 U.S.C. s. 107.
371. Id.
372. While the use of the entire song's lyrics weighs heavily against the use being a fair use,, the Supreme Court has held that use of the entire work can be a fair use. See Sony Corp. of Am. v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984).
373. Electric Word*, WIRED, 1.1, Premiere Issue, 1993, at 24.
374. 17 U.S.C. s. 108.
375. 17 U.S.C. s. 108(a).
376. 17 U.S.C. s. 108(d).
377. Id.
378. 17 U.S.C. s. 108(f)(1).
379. See 17 U.S.C. s. 106.
380. See Screen Gems-Columbia Music, Inc. v. Mark-Fi Records, Inc., 256 F. Supp. 523 (S.D.N.Y. 1966).
381. Janet Mason, *Crackdown on Software Pirates; Industry Watchdogs Renew Efforts to Curb Illegal Copying*, COMPUTERWORLD, Feb. 5, 1990, at 107.
382. Id.
383. Id.
384. Id.
385. Id.
386. Id.
387. Id.
388. Id.
389. 17 U.S.C. s. 117(1).
390. Id. s. 117(2).
391. Steve Givens, *Sharing Shareware: Non-Traditional Marketing Relies on Honor System*, ST. LOUIS BUS. J., July 1, 1991, s. 2 at 1B.
392. Id.
393. David Pescovitz, *Hacker Crackdown, Italian Style*, WIRED, 2.08, August 1994 at 29.
394. Id.
395. See *lamacchia_case.docs* file, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
396. Id.
397. Sega Enterprises v. Maphia, _F. Supp. _ (N.D. Cal. 1994) (March 28, 1994) 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5266, 1994 WL 378641 (C93-4262) [hereinafter *Sega*].
398. Id. at 7.
399. Id. at 6. One of the defendants sold "copiers" which are devices used to read the software off of a game cartridge for saving to a floppy disk, or for playing software from a disk on one of Sega's game consoles.
400. Id. at 7.
401. Id. at 17.
402. Id.
403. Id. at 18 (citing Casella v. Morris, 820 F.2d 362, 365 (11th Cir. 1987)).
404. Id. at 20-23.
405. 15 U.S.C. s. 1051 et seq.
406. *Sega*, supra note 390 at 9.
407. Id. at 24.
408. Id. at 26.
409. Id.
410. See supra text accompanying notes 121-23.
411. Legal aspects of the doctoring of photographs are beyond the scope of this paper - for a good discussion of such issues, see Benjamin Seecof, *Scanning into the Future of Copyrightable Images: Computer-Based Image Processing Poses a Present Threat*, 5 HIGH TECH. L.J. 371 (1990).
412. 17 U.S.C. s. 102(a)(5).
413. Id. s. 102(a).
414. Id. s. 101 (defining a copy); Id. s. 106 (Section 106 gives the copyright holder exclusive rights to make copies and derivative works of his or her creation.).
415. Id. s. 101.
416. Ezra Shapiro, *More on Copyright; Digitizing of Copyrighted Images*, MACWEEK, Oct. 11, 1988, at 27.
417. 17 U.S.C. s. 302 (applying to works created after Jan. 1, 1978, provides that a copyright shall expire 50 years after the death of the author of the work).
418. See, e.g., Burrow-Giles Lithographic Co. v. Sarony, 111 U.S. 53 (1984) (holding that photographs are copyrightable by virtue of the creativity that goes into arranging the subject elements and photographic variables into a distinct picture).
419. 17 U.S.C. s. 106; See Gracen v. Bradford Exch., 698 F. 2d. 300, (7th Cir. 1983); cf. Copyright Registration for Colorized Versions of Black and White Motion Pictures, 37 C.F.R. 202 (1987).
420. Id. s. 106A.
421. Id.
422. Ezra Shapiro, *Copywrongs on Consumer Info Networks? Posting of Scanned Images on Electronic Services Infringes Copyrights*, MACWEEK, Aug. 30, 1988, at 20.
423. 17 U.S.C. s. 106.
424. Franklin Mint Corp. v. National Wildlife Art Exch., 575 F.2d 62 (3d Cir. 1978); See also Zaccini v. Scripps-Howard Broadcasting Co., 433 U.S. 562 (1977) (involved TV station covering the plaintiff's entire act (human cannonball), depriving the plaint iff of a chance to sell tickets to the television viewers, since they had already seen his act).
425. 17 U.S.C. s. 107.
426. Shapiro, supra note 415.
427. Liz Horton, *Electronic Ethics of Photography; Use of Images in Desktop Publishing*, FOLIO: THE MAG. FOR MAG. MGMT., Jan. 1990, at 71.
428. 839 F. Supp. 1552 (M.D. Fla. 1993) [hereinafter, *Frena*].
429. Id. at 1554.
430. Id. at 1556.
431. Id.
432. Id.
433. Id. at 1558.
434. Id. at 1561.
435. Id. at 1562. This part of the court's holding is questionable, as the Judge infers activity to the Defendant which the defendant denies engaging in. Since the case involves a motion for summary judgement requested by Playboy, the Judge is required to draw all inferences in the light most favorable to the nonmovant. The judge obviously did not do this if he inferred activity which the Defendant denies engaging in. Id. at 1555, 1562.
436. MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, and is used for recording computer data for playing back electronic instruments. See, BRUCE BARTLET, INTRODUCTION TO PROFESSIONAL RECORDING TECHNIQUES 276-277 (1987).
437. Edward R. Silverman, *Legal Beat*, WIRED, 2.07, July, 1994 at 32.
438. Id.
439. Id.
440. Id.
441. Mitchell Kapor, *A Day in the Life of Prodigy*, EFFECTOR ONLINE, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation) (Vol. 1, No. 5).
442. Robert Charles, *Computer Bulletin Boards and Defamation: Who Should be Liable? Under What Standard?*, 2 J.L. & TECH 121, 131 (1987).
443. U.S. CONST. amend. I.
444. New York Times v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971).
445. 18 U.S.C. s. 2252.
446. 403 U.S. at 713.
447. See, e.g., Yuhas v. Mudge, 322 A.2d 824, 825 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 1974).
448. Id.
449. 968 F. 2d. 1110 (11th Cir. 1992) cert denied 122 L.Ed 173, 113 S.Ct. 1028 (1993).
450. The advertisement read: "GUN FOR HIRE: 37 year old professional mercenary desires jobs. Vietnam Veteran. Discrete [sic] and very private. Body guard, courier, and other special skills. All jobs considered. ..." Id., at 1112.
451. Id.
452. Id at 1115 citing United States v. Carroll Towing Co., 159 F. 2d. 169 (2nd Cir. 1947).
453. Id. at 1115.
454. Id. at 1118. To point out the difficulty with this test, one of the three Justices dissented because although he agreed with the court's test, he found the particular ad ambiguous. Id. at 1122.
455. *Information Policy, Computer Communications Networks Face Identity Crisis over Their Legal Status*, DAILY REP. FOR EXECUTIVES, Feb. 26, 1991, at A-6.
456. Joseph P. Thornton, et al., *Symposium: Legal Issues in Electronic Publishing: 5. Libel*, 36 FED. COM. L.J. 178, 179 (1984).
457. See RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS s. 581 (1989).
458. Jensen, supra note 8, at 3.
459. Charles, supra note 435 , at 131.
460. Smith v. California, 361 U.S. 147 (1959), reh'g denied, 361 U.S. 950 (1960).
461. Id. at 153 (citation omitted).
462. Id. at 155. 463. Seton v. American News Co., 133 F. Supp. 591 (N.D. Fla. 1955); cf. Manual Enters., Inc. v. Day, 370 U.S. 478 (1962).
464. 133 F. Supp. at 593.
465. 361 U.S. at 950.
466. 776 F. Supp. at 135.
467. Clifford Carlsen, *Wide Area Bulletin Boards Emerge as Method of Corporate Communications*, SAN FRANCISCO BUS. TIMES, Mar. 15, 1991, at 15.
468. 776 F. Supp. at 137.
469. Id. at 138.
470. Id.
471. Id. at 140.
472. Id.
473. *The Compuserve Case: A Step Forward in First Amendment Protection for Online Services*, EFFECTOR ONLINE, Jan. 7, 1992, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation) (Vol. 2, No. 3).
474. National Ass'n of Regulatory Util. Commrs v. F.C.C., 533 F.2d 601, 608 (1976).
475. Id. at 608.
476. E.g., Von Meysenbug v. Western Union Tel. Co., 54 F. Supp 100 (S.D. Fla. 1944); Mason v. Western Union Tel. Co., 52 Cal. App. 3d 429, (1975).
477. RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS s. 612 (1989).
478. Id. s. 581.
479. 54 F. Supp at 100; Western Union Tel. Co. v. Lesesne, 182 F.2d 135 (4th Cir. 1950); O'Brien v. Western Union Tel. Co., 113 F.2d 539 (1st Cir. 1940).
480. Anderson v. New York Tel. Co., 320 N.E.2d 647 (N.Y. 1974).
481. People v. Lauria, 251 Cal. App. 2d 471 (1967).
482. Charles, supra note 435, at 143.
483. Id. at 123.
484. See, *Electric Word*, WIRED, 1.4, Sept./Oct., 1993, at 26-31, discussing a project using the Internet's global decentralized structure as an "Experiment in Remote Printing."
485. Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, 18 U.S.C. s.2510.
486. 47 U.S.C. s. 223.
487. 47 C.F.R. s. 64.201
488. Id.
489. See Sable Communications v. F.C.C., 492 U.S. 115 (1989).
490. See coverage, for e.g., in David Loundy, *Whose Standards? Whose Community?*, CHICAGO DAILY LAW BULLETIN, AUGUST 1, 1994, at 5.
491. Supra, note 479.
492. 18 U.S.C. s.1465.
493. 18 U.S.C. s.1462.
494. See supra, note 483.
495. Id.
496. Id.
497. Id.
498. California Software, Inc. v. Reliability Research, Inc., 631 F. Supp. 1356 (C.D. Cal. 1986).
499. U.S. CONST. art. I, s. 8.
500. 18 U.S.C. s. 2510.
501. Mail, 18 U.S.C. s. 1702.
502. Compare s. 1702 with E-mail, 18 U.S.C. s. 2510.
503. Compare s. 1702 with s. 2511.
504. s. 2511.
505. s. 1702; See also United States Postal Serv. v. Council of Greenburgh Civic Ass'n, 453 U.S. 114 (1981).
506. Rowan v. United States Postal Dep't, 397 U.S. 728 (1970).
507. Id. at 737.
508. Bolger v. Young Drug Prods. Corp., 463 U.S. 60 (1983).
509. See, e.g., Edward J. Naughton, Note, *Is Cyberspace a Public Forum? Computer Bulletin Boards, Free Speech, and State Action*, 81 GEO. L.J. 409 (1992).
510. U.S. CONST. amend. I.
511. U.S. CONST. amend. XIV
512. See, e.g., R. A. V. v. City of St. Paul Minn., 112 S. Ct. 2538 (1992).
513. Id., at 2544.
514. Id. (citing Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 491 U.S. 781 (1989)).
515. Marsh v. State of Alabama, 326 U.S. 501, 66 S. Ct. 276, 278 (1946) [hereinafter *Marsh*].
516. Id.
517. Id.
518. Id.
519. Amalgamated Food Employees Union Local 590 v. Logan Valley Plaza, Inc., 391 U.S. 308, 88 S.Ct. 1601 (1968) [hereinafter Logan Valley].
520. Id. at 1608.
521. Id. at 1609.
522. 7 U.S. 551, 33 L.Ed.2d. 131, 92 S.Ct. 2219 (1972).
523. Id.
524. Id. at 2225.
525. 424 U.S. 507, 96 S.Ct. 1029 (1976) [hereinafter *Hudgens*].
526. Id. at 1035.
527. Id. at 1036-1037.
528. It is worth pointing out that individual states can provide greater speech protection than is provided for by U.S. Constitution. For example, California has a constitutional provision which has been held to permit individuals to exercise free speech and petition rights on the property of privately owned shopping centers to which the public is invited. See Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, 447 U.S. 75, 100 S.Ct. 2035 (1980).
529. As quoted in Byrne v. Deane, 1 K.B. 818, 824 (Eng. C.A. 1937).
530. Id. at 818. The case finally held against the plaintiff on the grounds that the message was not defamatory. Id.
531. Id. at 820.
532. Id. at 821.
533. Id. at 838.
534. Id.
535. Id.
536. Id.
537. Woodling v. Knickerbocker, 17 N.W. 387 (Minn. 1883).
538. Id.
539. Id.
540. Id.
541. Id.
542. Id.
543. Id.
544. Id.
545. Fogg v. Boston & L. R. Co., 20 N.E. 109 (Mass. 1889).
546. Id.
547. Id. at 110.
548. Id.
549. Hellar v. Bianco, 244 P.2d 757 (Cal. Ct. App. 1952).
550. Id. at 758.
551. Id.
552. Id. at 759.
553. Id.
554. Id.
555. Tacket v. General Motors Corp., 836 F.2d 1042 (7th Cir. 1987).
556. Id. at 1043-34.
557. Id. at 1047.
558. Id.
559. Scott v. Hull, 259 N.E. 160 (Ohio Ct. App. 1970).
560. Id. at 160.
561. Id. at 161.
562. Id. at 162.
563. Id.
564. Id. at 160.
565. Id.
566. Id. at 162.
567. 244 P.2d at 757.
568. Id.
569. Id.
570. 1 K.B. at 818.
571. 17 N.W. at 387.
572. 836 F.2d at 1042.
573. 20 N.E. at 109.
574. Communications Act of 1934, 47 U.S.C. s. 301.
575. Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. F.C.C., 395 U.S. 367, 376 (1969).
576. Id. at 390.
577. F.C.C. v. Pacifica Foundation, Inc., 438 U.S. 726, reh'g denied, 439 U.S. 883 (1978).
578. Id. at 731.
579. Action for Children's Television v. F.C.C., 932 F.2d. 1504 (D.C. Cir), reh'g denied, 1991 U.S. App. LEXIS 25527, reh'g denied 1991 U.S. App. LEXIS 25425 (1991) (en banc).
580. It is possible for telemarketers to use computers for phone solicitation; it is similarly possible for an individual to prompt a computer to make lewd or obscene phone calls.
581. Adams v. Frontier Broadcasting Co., 555 P.2d 556 (Wyo. 1976).
582. Mail, 47 U.S.C. s. 151; See also United States v. Midwest Video Corp., 406 U.S. 649 (1972).
583. 438 U.S. at 726.
584. Community Television, Inc. v. Roy City, 555 F. Supp. 1164 (D. Utah 1982); Cruz v. Ferre, 755 F.2d 1415 (11th Cir. 1985).
585. Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-385, s. 2(3), 106 Stat. 1460.
586. 47 U.S.C. s. 532(h).
587. Cable Television Consumer Protection Act of 1992, s.10(a)(2).
588. Id. s. 10(b).
589. Id. s. 15.
590. Katy Ring, *Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility Seeks to Change Lay Preconceptions*, COMPUGRAM INT'L, Oct. 9, 1990.
591. John P. Barlow, *Crime and Puzzlement: In Advance of the Law on the Electronic Frontier; Cyberspace*, WHOLE EARTH REV., Sept. 22, 1990, at 44.
592. *Laurence Tribe Proposed Constitutional Amendment*, available over Internet, by anonymous FTP, at FTP.EFF.ORG (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
593. See generally John Browning, *Libraries Without Walls for Books Without Pages*, WIRED, 1.1, Premiere Issue, 1993, at 65, discussing the Bibliotheque de France's digital scanning of "100,000 great works of the 20th century as chosen by a committee of notable French citizens."
594. See generally Charles, supra note 435.
595. Id.
596. Id.
597. Id.
598. Johnathan Gilbert, *Computer Bulletin Board Operator Liability for User Misuse*, 54 FORDHAM L. REV. 439, 441 (1985).
599. See Branscomb, supra note 200, at 7-11.
600. 18 U.S.C. s. 2511.
601. 18 U.S.C. s. 1702.
602. Danny Hillis, *Kay + Hillis*, WIRED, 2.01, Jan., 1994, at 103.

Copyright 1994 - 1995 by P-Law, Inc., and Kenneth M. Perry, Esq. All rights reserved. Reproduction is permitted so long as no charge is made for copies, no copies are placed on any electronic online service or database for which there is a fee other than a flat access charge, there is no alteration and this copyright notice is included.

Return to Table of Contents